CONTACT

Email: ggci@yale.edu

Hosted by the Yale Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering

Designed by Seon Augusto Ferreira

University Curriculum - Section Three

You can find the Course Syllabus and a description of the course on the page "University Curriculum - Section One".

Additional Materials, including a grading worksheet and the PowerPoint Template can be found at the end of this page.

You can also download all of the materials at https://www.dropbox.com/sh/rajl43wp94nm8vy/AACkAgwekBtwBGLUsOG56MLsa?dl=0.

Lecture 19: Green Chemistry and Energy
Lesson Plan 19: Green Chemistry and Energy
In this lecture students will learn about the current state of energy production and consumption. Traditional sources of energy include non-renewable sources such as coal and oil. Renewable energy sources will be explored such as biofuels, solar cells and fuel cells. Students will learn how energy is used within the laboratory to heat, cool and for processing, along with alternative energy sources for performing synthetic reactions. The next generation of energy applications will also be discussed.
Presentation 9: Sustainability
  • Current state of energy consumption: Globally

  • Source of energy:

    • Power plant – coal, oil, natural gas

    • Renewable – Biofuels, solar cell, Fuel cells, hydro, etc.

  • Energy in the Laboratory

    • Thermal

    • Cooling

    • Distillation

    • Equipment

    • Synthesis

  • •New Modern Applications

Class Exercise: Synthesis of Biodiesel
Class Exercise: Dye Sensitized Solar Cell
Lecture 20 - Green Analytical Chemistry
Lesson Plan 20: Green Analytical Chemistry
In this class students will learn about Green Analytical Chemistry. The lecture includes information about analytical method assessment, including tools and techniques for assessing the greenness of methods. The lecture addresses sample preparation, analytical techniques and methods including chromatography and spectroscopy, and Process Analytical Technology (PAT).
Presentation 20: Green Analytical Chemistry
  • What is Green Analytical Chemistry?

  • Analytical Method Assessment

    • Tools and Techniques for Assessing Greenness of Analytical Methods

  • Sample Preparation

  • Analytical Techniques and Methods

    • Chromatography

    • Spectroscopy

    • Mass spectrometry

  • •Process Analytical Technology (PAT)

Reading: Green Chemistry Metrics
Lecture 21 - Introduction to Toxicology
Lesson Plan 21: Introduction to Toxicology
This lecture introduces toxicology. Students will learn different toxicology terms, including definition, types of toxic compounds, and factors influencing toxicity. At the end of the lecture, students will revise potential toxicology endpoints to molecular features which are derived from the periodic table. In addition to periodic table trends, the lecture also introduces the concept of pKa and links it to a skin irritation through the class activity.
Presentation 21: Introduction to Toxicology
  • Toxicology definition

  • Toxicity types

  • Factors affecting chemical toxicity

  • Toxicology and the periodic table

Class Exercise: Aqueous and Lipid Solubility
Class Exercise: Aqueous and Lipid Solubility Answer Key
Class Activity: pKa and Skin Irritation
Class Activity: pKa and Skin Irritation Answer Key
Handout: Log P, Log Kow, and pKa
Lecture 22 - Chemical Exposure and Dosage
Lesson Plan 22: Chemical Exposure and Dosage
In this lecture, students learn components of risk - hazard and exposure and how green chemistry aims to minimize hazard, which ultimately leads to minimizing the risk.  This lecture also defines the concept of dose and how the toxicity testing is currently done through dose-response curves. A small class activity on the dose-response curve for solvents allows student to use their newly learned knowledge on dose-response in practice and a quiz at the end summarizes the key concepts covered during this class period.
Presentation 22: Chemical Exposure and Dosage
  • Risk Assessment

  • Hazard

  • Exposure

  • Dose

  • Dose Response Curve

  • LOAEL, NOAEL, and Reference Dose

  • Tools for Hazard Characterization

Homework 5: Chemical Exposure and Dose
Homework 5: Answer Key
Class Exercise: Lettuce Seed Assay
Class Exercise: Daphnia Bioassay LD 50
Reading: Toxicology Dose Response
Lecture 23 - Molecular Toxicology
Lesson Plan 23: Molecular Toxicology
This lecture introduces Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) concepts and how chemists can take advantage of physicochemical parameters like logP, molecular weight, and vapor pressure to redesign molecules that won’t absorb into the body, limit distribution, and facilitate metabolism and excretion. These concepts are reinforced by an in-class exercise that explores potential absorption routes by benzene. The lecture also explores new approaches to hazard minimization through molecular design.
Presentation 23: Molecular Toxicology
  • ADME

  • Characteristics of an “ideal chemical”

  • Approaches to hazard minimization through molecular design

Class Exercise: ADME and Rational Design
Class Exercise: ADME and Rational Design Answer Key
Class Exercise: Electrophilic Reactions
Class Exercise: Electrophilic Reactions Answer Key
Reading for Exercise: Electrophiles in Predictive Toxicology
Lecture 24 - Designing Future Products with Reduced Toxicity
Lesson Plan 24: Designing Future Products with Reduced Toxicity
This lecture continues to explore different approaches to hazard minimization by changing molecular design. After several practical examples and a case study, students will learn about current methods that scientists use to assess chemical toxicity on a large scale. In vivo and In vitro studies are discussed.
Presentation 24: Designing Future Products with Reduced Toxicity
  • Approaches to hazard minimization through molecular design

  • Case study: Codexis

  • Alternatives to animal testing

  • QSAR-Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship

  • The nexus of chemistry and toxicology

  • Sources of high throughput data

Homework 6: Toxicology
Homework 6: Answer Key
Homework 6: Example of Dose Response
Class Exercise: Using ProTox Class
Class Exercise: Glutathione as a Tool
Class Exercise: Glutathione as a Tool Answer Key
Class Exercise: Crossroads of Computation
Reading: Selection of Chemical Alternatives
Lecture 25 & 26: Safe Chemical Design Game
Lesson Plan 25 & 26: Safe Chemical Design Game
The last two lectures, lecture 25 and lecture 26, allow students to explore safer chemical design and ADME through educational online computer game. The game encourages students to think like professional chemical designers and to develop a chemical product with respect to function and improved human and environmental health. The developed worksheet leads students through the game challenges and tests their understanding of the content as they progress through the game. The eight questions in the worksheet can be used as an individual assignment or as an in-class discussion. These questions are designed to be answered as students play the game.
Class Exercise: Safer Chemical Design Game
Class Exercise: Safer Chemical Design Answer Key
Reading: The Safer Chemical Design Game
Lecture 27 - Exam 3: Final Exam
Exam 3: Final Exam
Exam 3: Answer Key
Administrative Materials
Grading Worksheet
Curriculum Powerpoint Template
Class Exercise: Periodic Table Battleship Game
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